- Systemic corruption, weak rule of law and porous borders with an abundance of natural resources has given rise to various organised criminal networks dealing in illicit trade.
- Rosewood is the primary resource being illegally logged and smuggled out of the country, mainly to China. Actors in the trade have strong patronage networks with the political elite, and some rosewood timber barons are politicians.
- While there are several cases of gold smuggling that have come to light, there is a need for further research for an in-depth understanding of the various actors and networks involved.
- Wildlife trafficking is rampant with several species, including tortoises and lemurs being smuggled out of the country via land and sea.
- Harassment of those raising voices against corruption and environmental crime is on the rise.