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The Western Balkans and Turkey: Overview of corruption in the environment and climate sector

Corruption remains a challenge in Western Balkan countries and Turkey, including in the environment sector and climate domain. Political drivers of corruption in the sector emanate from entrenched patronage networks and state capture common across the region, which has led to the awarding of contracts mostly to political elites and their allies. Economically, the provision of government subsidies in the booming hydropower projects is regarded as a major driver of corruption in the energy sector. In addition, there is also increased involvement of organised criminal groups in illegal logging, and these groups use both corruption and violence in their operations. Evidence shows that most areas affected by corruption in the sector include energy, forestry, waste and the extractive industries. In addition, corruption tends to be most prevalent during the procurement stage, as well as affecting environmental law enforcement.

11 July 2021
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Main points

  • In 2016, Western Balkan countries and Turkey had an average Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) score of 39.8 out of 100 – which then dropped to 37.8 in 2020 – indicating an increase in public sector corruption.
  • Patronage networks deeply entrenched in political systems across the region have resulted in the corrupt awarding of contracts in the environment and climate sector to political elites and their allies.
  • Poor governance around subsidies allocations in hydropower projects across the region exacerbated corruption in the energy sector, and evidence shows that most contracts are awarded to politically connected persons who are making huge profits from the subsidies.
  • Evidence shows that most areas affected by corruption in the sector include energy, forestry, waste and extractives. In addition, corruption tends to be prevalent during the procurement stage, as well as in environmental law enforcement.

Cite this publication


Duri, J.; (2021) The Western Balkans and Turkey: Overview of corruption in the environment and climate sector. Bergen: U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Chr. Michelsen Institute (U4 Helpdesk Answer 2021:10)

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About the author

Jorum is a Research Coordinator at Transparency International, with his primary responsibilities at the Anti-Corruption Helpdesk.

Disclaimer


All views in this text are the author(s)’, and may differ from the U4 partner agencies’ policies.

This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Keywords


environment, climate change, Turkey, Western Balkans