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Corruption and anti-corruption within the research sector and higher education system in Mozambique

There has been a rapid rise in the number of Mozambican universities in the past two decades, but corruption risks in these institutions and the research sector more broadly remains an under-examined area. Identified risks include political manipulation of university affairs by government, mismanagement of research grant funds and a lack of independence of the country’s quality assurance body. There are also reports of other forms of corruption such as bribery, plagiarism, academic fraud and sextortion for grades within universities. Several mitigation measures can be put into place to strengthen the integrity of the system, and these include accountability mechanisms within universities and research institutions, independence and increased capacity of the CNAQ, anti-plagiarism policies and tools, sanctions for academic dishonesty, anti-corruption clauses in research grant agreements, compliance assessments of universities and research institutions, and enhanced whistleblower protection.

19 June 2023
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Main points

  • Mozambique’s number of higher education institutions have been rapidly increasing over recent decades, but there are concerns over political influence, inequality of regional access, academic dishonesty and acts of petty corruption.
  • The research and innovation sector remains under-funded, and there are issues of a lack of publicly funded financial incentives for academics.
  • The national quality assurance body (CNAQ) is reported to be influenced heavily by the government and lacks independence and technical capacity of its staff.
  • These factors may increase the risks of types of corruption in higher education, research and innovation and quality assurance bodies, namely: bribery, sextortion, political interference, embezzlement and plagiarism or academic dishonesty.

Cite this publication

Maslen, C.; (2023) Corruption and anti-corruption within the research sector and higher education system in Mozambique. Bergen: U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Chr. Michelsen Institute (U4 Helpdesk Answer 2023:16)

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