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This Module is a resource for lecturers, developed by UNDOC. It gives an overview of the most common acts and manifestations of corruption in the public sector. To better understand why public sector corruption occurs, the Module discusses theoretical frameworks such as the principal agent, collective action, institutional and game theories. As public sector corruption perverts powers and resources intended to directly benefit the public, it is crucial - for the purpose of guarding public welfare - that there are effective controls and accountability mechanisms to reduce corruption risks in the public sector.
The Module discusses such measures, including how to design public institutions and processes in a manner that limits the incentives and opportunities for corruption. It includes specific discussions on public procurement and state-owned enterprises (SOEs), two areas of the public sector that are especially vulnerable to corruption.