Examples of reference documents that development agencies use for corruption risk management purposes.
CANADA (Global Affairs Canada)
- GAC is developing a harmonised and integrated risk management tool (RMT) for all GAC grants and contributions, managed by the Risk Management Advisory Group.
- The Fraud Management Unit supports fraud detection and the management of fraud cases.
DENMARK (Ministry of Foreign Affairs / Danida)
- All staff should respect a code of conduct.
- An online reporting mechanism is in place for possible irregularities.
- Risks are assessed and managed at the country and programme levels.
FINLAND (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
- Governance assessments and governance performance indicators are used to perform risk assessments.
- Assessing and mitigating risks are mainly country and intervention specific, and can vary from one aid instrument to another.
- There is an e-service for reporting suspicions of misuse of Finnish development cooperation funds.
FRANCE (French Development Agency – AFD)
- At the project appraisal stage, due diligence is carried out by operational departments.
- When concluding a contract, contractual provisions are there to prevent any prohibited practice.
- At the project implementation stage, monitoring checks respect for contractual provisions and that any risks are managed appropriately.
GERMANY (German Corporation for International Cooperation)
- GIZ follows a zero-tolerance policy.
- Corruption risks are managed at the country level.
- Training and codes of ethics are key aspects to prevent corruption risks.
- Programme appraisals consider how to prevent corruption risks.
NORWAY (Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation – Norad)
Guidelines for dealing with suspected financial irregularities in the Foreign Service / Grant Management Manual. Guide for assessment of results and risk management
- The Fraud and Integrity Unit receives warnings and is responsible for investigating and enforcing the Zero Tolerance Policy.
- Due diligence of partners, country risk assessments, and grant risk assessments are performed.
SWEDEN (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency – Sida)
- Risks of corruption are included in the country strategy programme and measured at the sector and project levels.
- Corruption risk assessment is part of Sida's Rating System of Projects.
- Reporting requirements consider corruption risks.
SWITZERLAND (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation – SDC)
- Corruption prevention and sanction measures should be applied to sector programmes.
- SDC’s operational divisions are responsible for designing and implementing anti-corruption programmes.
- SDC’s Governance Division is responsible for providing advice and support to SDC operational staff concerning anti-corruption measures in partner countries.
UNITED KINGDOM (Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office – FCDO)
- Risk is managed at three levels: the corporate, operational unit, and intervention levels.
- The Internal Audit Department manages suspicions of fraud.